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  1. Study Skills 13 items
    1. How to Write Your First Undergraduate Essay | History Today - Jeremy Black

      Webpage  Jeremy Black prepares readers for the rigours of university history.

    2. Effective Source Analysis | History Today - Rob Johnston

      Webpage  Rob Johnston advises that we adopt a questioning approach.

    3. How to Write an Essay Under Exam Conditions | History Today - Elliott Richman

      Webpage  Elliot Richman provides a useful strategy for the ultimate test.

    4. Revising for Exams | History Today - Mary Gould

      Webpage  Mary Gould gives her tips for success.

    5. How Much Historiography Should Be Included in Essays? | History Today - John Claydon

      Webpage  John Claydon provides practical guidance on a vexed issue.

    6. Ten Essay Tips | History Today - Robert Pearce

      Webpage  Essays are no longer the be-all and end-all of history assessment; but the ability to write a good essay is still vital. Robert Pearce gives some advice.

    7. The Value of Studying History | History Today - Keith Randell

      Webpage  Keith Randell, the founder of the Access to History series, demonstrates that there is virtually no occasion in life when the study of History is irrelevant.

    8. Postmodernism and the Study of History | History Today - Richard J. Evans

      Webpage  In defending the study of history, Richard J Evans argues that the extreme exponents of Postmodernism are Emperors with No Clothes.

    9. Causation: The Long and the Short of It | History Today - Graham Darby

      Webpage  Graham Darby looks at why things happen, and argues that short-term causes are paramount.

    10. The Pleasures and Pains of Contemporary History | History Today - Peter Hennessey

      Webpage  Peterl Hennessy talks of his two unsound heroes in history in the inaugural lecture of the Longman-History Today awards

    11. The Role of the Individual in History | History Today - Frank McDonough

      Webpage  Frank McDonough looks at the old question of whether history is made by great individuals or impersonal forces.

  2. Essential Reading 2 items
  3. Further General Reading 21 items
    1. Europe: a history - Norman Davies 2014

      Book 

    2. The great powers and the European States system, 1815-1914 - F. R. Bridge, Roger Bullen 1980

      Book 

    3. Empire: how Britain made the modern world - Niall Ferguson 2004

      Book 

    4. A farewell to alms: a brief economic history of the world - Gregory Clark c2007

      Book 

    5. Introduction to global military history: 1775 to the present day - Jeremy Black 2005

      Book Further

    6. The pelican history of the world - J. M. Roberts 1980

      Book Further

    7. Reform and Revolution | History Today - John Spiller

      Webpage  John Spiller shows that, in constitution-making in the USA (1787-89), France (1789-92) and Great Britain (1830-32), some men were considered more equal than others.

    8. Revolutions, 1789-1917 - Allan Todd 1998

      Book 

    9. Peace, war and the European powers, 1814-1914 - C. J. Bartlett 1996

      Book 

    10. The revolutionary era, 1789-1850 - Charles Breunig, Matthew Bernard Levinger c2002

      Book 

    11. The nineteenth century: Europe 1789-1914 - T. C. W. Blanning c2000

      Book 

    12. The age of revolution: Europe 1789-1848 - E. J. Hobsbawm 1977

      Book 

    13. Europe in the nineteenth century: 1830-1880 - Harry Hearder c1988 (electronic resource)

      Book 

    14. The ascendancy of Europe: 1815-1914 - M. S. Anderson 2003

      Book 

    15. Modern Europe, 1789-present - Asa Briggs, Patricia Clavin, Asa Briggs 2003

      Book 

    16. Barricades and borders: Europe 1800-1914 - Robert Gildea 2003

      Book 

    17. The age of nationalism and reform, 1850-1890 - Norman Rich c1977

      Book 

  4. China 24 items
    1. China in world history - Paul S. Ropp 2010

      Book Further

    2. China Under the Empress Dowager | History Today - Richard Harris 10 October 1957

      Webpage  Throughout the years of Chinese self-questioning in the second half of the nineteenth century, Tz’u Hsi, the Empress Dowager, held the stage, untouched by the new thought.

    3. Commissioner Lin and Opium | History Today - M. Foster Farley February 1977

      Webpage  Chinese Emperors banned the importation of opium, writes M. Foster Farley, but it was smuggled into the country by East Indian traders and led to the Opium War of 1840

    4. Minister to Peking: Sir Thomas Francis Wade | History Today - Gerald Morgan November 1973

      Webpage  During the forty-one years he spent in China, writes Gerald Morgan, Thomas Francis Wade learned to understand the Chinese mind and culture without being absorbed by it.

    5. Asia and the Old World Order | History Today - Thomas DuBois March 2013

      Webpage  Some commentators predict that the 21st century will be the ‘Asian century’, marking a significant shift in power from West to East. If so, it will not be so different from the global order of the 19th century, says Thomas DuBois.

    6. The Wars of the Poppies | History Today - Leslie Marchant May 2002

      Webpage  Leslie Marchant sees the Opium Wars as a philosophical clash between two cultures and two notions of government and society.

    7. The Opium Wars: From Both Sides Now | History Today - Julia Lovell June 2012

      Webpage  Julia Lovell reappraises Leslie Marchant’s article on the Opium Wars, first published in History Today in 2002. -

    8. China's Age of Fragility | History Today - Robert Bickers March 2011

      Webpage  As China reclaims its central role in the world, Robert Bickers appeals to Britons and others in the West to take account of the legacy left by the country’s difficult 19th century.

    9. Chinese Burns: The British in China 1842-1900 | History Today - Robert Bickers August 2000

      Webpage  Robert Bickers shows how the history of British and European imperialism in China helps explain the ferocious Boxer War of 1900.

    10. China: a new history - John King Fairbank, Merle Goldman 2006

      Book 

    11. The history of China - David Curtis Wright 2001

      Book 

    12. The complete history of China - J. A. G. Roberts 2003

      Book 

    13. A history of China - J. A. G. Roberts 1999

      Book 

    14. A short history of China - Hilda Hookham 1969

      Book 

    15. The Cambridge illustrated history of China - Patricia Buckley Ebrey 1999

      Book 

    16. The political history of China, 1840-1928 - Ssu-yü Teng, Jeremy Ingalls, Li Chien-nung 1972

      Book 

    17. China in world history - Paul S. Ropp 2010

      Book 

    18. Modern China: a history - Edwin E. Mose 2008 (electronic resource)

      Book 

    19. Modern China, a history - Edwin E. Moise 1994

      Book 

    20. Modern China: an illustrated history - J. A. G. Roberts 2000

      Book 

  5. Cultural, Economic and Social History 13 items
    1. Understanding the Industrial Revolution - Charles More 2000 (electronic resource)

      Book 

    2. Oxford DNB article: Darwin, Charles Robert

      Webpage  The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography is your essentail source for bibiographical details on all leading characters in British history.

    3. Science and Religion in the 19th Century | History Today - Francis Murphy

      Webpage  Francis Murphy challenges the idea that science was religion’s foremost enemy, in this winning essay in the 2001 Julia Wood Award.

    4. Enlightened Absolutism - New Wine in Old Bottles | History Today - Malcolm Crook

      Webpage  Malcolm Crook takes a fresh look at the eighteenth-century alliance between philosophers and kings.

  6. France 31 items
    1. The French Revolution 24 items
      1. The French Revolution: A Complete History | History Today - David Andress 2 February 2016

        Article  David Andress provides a nuanced history of the French Revolution, which shows that its facts are anything but fixed.

      2. The Cultural Background to the French Revolution | History Today - J.L. Carr

        Webpage  J.L. Carr describes how, in revolutionary France, the debonair delights of civilization were replaced by a more virtuous albeit often stale cultural climate.

      3. The origins of the French revolutionary wars - T. C. W. Blanning 1986

        Book 

      4. Robespierre | History Today - George Rudé

        Webpage  No other leader of the French Revolution held the centre of the revolutionary stage so long as Robespierre. George Rudé portrays him as its personification and guiding spirit — a man of lofty aspirations, though according to the popular legend a fanatical man of blood.

      5. Jean-Paul Marat | History Today - W.J. Fishman

        Webpage  The famous French revolutionary was a graduate in medicine from St Andrews University, writes W.J. Fishman, and was once a teacher at a Non-conformist College in Warrington.

      6. Georges-Jacques Danton, 1759-1794 | History Today - Maurice Hutt

        Webpage  In the autumn of 1792, as Lamartine wrote, the “national heart of France seemed to beat in Danton’s breast.” Eighteen months later, writes Maurice Hutt, Danton went to the scaffold, crying: “Show my head to the people; it is well worth it!”

      7. Antoine de Saint-Just: A Fashionable Revolutionary | History Today - Philip Thody

        Webpage  Philip Thody critically re-examines both the record and his legend of this attractive ill-fated young man, the most fashionable of French revolutionary heroes.

      8. Camille Desmoulins, Revolutionary Orator, 1760-94 | History Today - John Hartcup

        Webpage  For a few years an impoverished barrister became one of the most effective orators and journalists of the French Revolution, writes John Hartcup.

      9. The Gain from Thomas Paine | History Today - David Nash

        Webpage  Thomas Paine inspired and witnessed the revolutions that gave birth to the United States and destroyed the French monarchy. A genuinely global figure, he anticipated modern ideas on human rights, atheism and rationalism.

      10. Robespierre and the Terror | History Today - Marisa Linton

        Webpage  Marisa Linton reviews the life and career of one of the most vilified men in history.

      11. The Execution of Louis XVI and the End of the French Monarchy | History Today - William Doyle

        Webpage  William Doyle discusses traditional and revisionist interpretations of the downfall of the Kings of France, arguing that notions of a 'desacralised monarchy' are inadequate to explain what happened.

      12. Fifty Years of Rewriting the French Revolution | History Today - John Dunne

        Webpage  John Dunne signposts main landmarks and current directions in the historiographical debate.

      13. Louis XVI and the French Revolution | History Today - John Hardman

        Webpage  John Hardman, a biographer of Louis XVI, argues that the king at the time of the French Revolution fails to live down to his abysmal reputation.

      14. The Abortive Crusade | History Today - Tim Blanning

        Webpage  To export the Revolution's benefits across Europe was the early hope of the French - but the unenthusiastic response from the liberated peoples rapidly soured the vision. Tim Blanning chronicles that descent from optimism to realpolitik.

      15. Tom Paine in France | History Today - Stuart Andrews

        Webpage  Stuart Andrews shows how, in his person and in his writings, Tom Paine forms a link between the two great revolutions of the late eighteenth century - the American and the French.

      16. Reading History: The French Revolution | History Today - Douglas Johnson

        Webpage  This month History Today publishes the first in a new regular series of bibliographical essays on a wide variety of historiographical topics. The idea of the series is to survey the subject and to provide a guide to the most important and most recent books about it. In the first of the series, Douglas Johnson looks at the French Revolution. (Now rather out-of-date).

      17. The French Revolution - Jocelyn Hunt 1998

        Book  In the French Revolution, Jocelyn Hunt examines the major issues and background to the revolution, including its causes, and disputes as to when it ended. The author also surveys the views of historians on this period and looks at wider questions such as the nature of revolution. Beginning with the pre-revolution economic and political situation, and covering through to the fall of Robespierre and the rise of Bonaparte, this book provides both challenging analysis and a concise introduction.

      18. The Oxford history of the French Revolution - William Doyle 2003

        Book 

      19. The French Revolution and the Catholic Church | History Today - Gemma Betros

        Webpage  Gemma Betros examines the problems the Revolution posed for religion, and that religion posed for the Revolution. - See more at: http://www.historytoday.com.ezproxy.westminster.ac.uk/gemma-betros/french-revolution-and-catholic-church#sthash.jonNRUFk.dpuf

      20. A companion to the French Revolution - Peter McPhee 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book 

    2. Napoleon 7 items
      1. Napoleon The Man | History Today - Gemma Betros

        Webpage  Gemma Betros asks what kind of person Napoleon really was.

      2. Napoleon at War: Secrets of Success or Seeds of Failure? | History Today - Graham Goodlad

        Webpage  Graham Goodlad examines the controverisal reputation of Napoleon Bonaparte as a military commander.

      3. Napoleon and Empire | History Today - Matthew MacLachlan

        Webpage  Matthew MacLachlan asks how far Napoleon defeated himself.

      4. Napoleon's Empire: From enlightened absolutism to colonial imperialism | History Today - Michael Broers

        Webpage  Michael Broers argues that the influence of Napoleon’s Empire was out of all proportion to its duration.

      5. Napoleon For and Against...and Beyond | History Today - John Dunne

        Webpage  John Dunne follows historians along the trail signposted by Geyl seventy years ago

      6. Napoleon and Europe - Chapter 13 of John Merriman's "A History of Modern Europe"

        Chapter  This is an electronic copy of Merriman's useful chapter on Napoleon.

  7. Imperialism 8 items
    1. British rule and the Indian economy 1800-1914 - Neil Charlesworth 1982

      Book 

    2. The British Empire, 1815-1914 - Frank McDonough 1994

      Book 

    3. The nineteenth century - A. N. Porter 2001

      Book 

    4. British imperialism - Robert Johnson 2002 (electronic resource)

      Book 

    5. Concession and Repression: British Rule in India 1857-1919 | History Today - Robert Carr

      Webpage  Robert Carr assesses the nature of British rule in India during a key, transitional phase.

    6. British foreign and imperial policy, 1865-1919 - Graham D. Goodlad 2000 (electronic resource)

      Book 

    7. The lion's share: a short history of British imperialism, 1850-2011 - Bernard Porter 2013 (electronic resource)

      Book  As well as presenting a lively narrative of events, Bernard Porter explores a number of broad analytical themes, challenging more conventional and popular interpretations. He sees imperialism as a symptom not of Britain's strength in the world, but of her decline; and he argues that the empire itself both aggravated and obscured deep-seated malaise in the British economy.

    8. 'Pax Britannica'?: British foreign policy 1789-1914 - Muriel Evelyn Chamberlain 2014 (electronic resource)

      Book  Pax Britannica? is a study of Britain's international role and foreign policy during the century of her imperial greatness. The study shows how her foreign policy was affected, and to some extent, dictated by her domestic political issues. In her stimulating and readable study, Dr Chamberlain explains the how the whole nature of foreign-policy making changed in the nineteenth century. Once the preserve of a small handful of monarchs and professional diplomats, it was transformed by the expansion of the franchise, the influence of the press and the mobilisation of public opinion by men such as Disraeli and Palmerston.

  8. Japan 7 items
    1. Concise dictionary of modern Japanese history - Janet Hunter c1984

      Book 

    2. The Meiji Restoration | History Today - Henry McAleavy September 1958

      Webpage  The achievements of the Meiji regime in transforming Japan, within the space of half a lifetime, into one of the most powerful of modern states are justly regarded as among the most remarkable events in history. But the restoration of the Emperor and the fall of the Shogun was brought about at the cost of a fierce domestic struggle, writes Henry McAleavy, which involved many strange personalities and dramatic events.

    3. The Making of Modern Japan | History Today - Henry McAleavy May 1959

      Article  In the 1860s a group of the younger Samurai launched the Meiji revolution in the Emperor's name. This event, writes Henry McAleavy, helped convert Japan into a modern country, with Western fashions and techniques imposed upon the national habits of centuries.

    4. On the Turn - Japan, 1900 | History Today - Richard Perren June 1992

      Article  From isolation to Great Power status: Richard Perren explains how a mania for Westernisation led to Japan's transformation at the turn of the century.

    5. Japan: Isolationism and Internationalism | History Today - Jean-Pierre Lehman January 1982

      Article  Jean-Pierre Lehmann explores Japan's transition from isolation to internationalisation.

  9. Latin America 16 items
    1. Simon Bolivar and the Spanish Revolutions | History Today - John Lynch

      Webpage Further What role did Simon Bolivar play in the history of Latin America's independence from Spain?

    2. The British in Argentina | History Today - Cyril Hamshere

      Webpage  If the link does not work, go to 'Library Search' and search for 'History Today Archive', then search for the article by author surname.

    3. "Independence or Death": British Adventurers in South America | History Today - Jan Reid

      Webpage  If the link does not work, go to 'Library Search' and search for 'History Today Archive', then search for the article by author surname.

    4. The Monroe Doctrine | History Today - Arnold Whitridge

      Webpage  If the link does not work, go to 'Library Search' and search for 'History Today Archive', then search for the article by author surname.

    5. Empire of Exceptions: The Making of Modern Brazil | History Today - Gabriel Paquette

      Webpage  If the link does not work, go to 'Library Search' and search for 'History Today Archive', then search for the article by author surname.

    6. A history of Latin America - George Pendle 1990

      Book 

    7. The Penguin history of Latin America - Edwin Williamson 2009

      Book 

    8. A history of Latin America: empires and sequels 1450-1930 - P. J. Bakewell 1997

      Book 

    9. Born in blood and fire: a concise history of Latin America - John Charles Chasteen c2001

      Book 

    10. A history of modern Latin America - Lawrence A. Clayton, Michael L. Conniff c2005

      Book 

    11. The Independence of Latin America - Leslie Bethell 1987

      Book 

    12. Latin American revolutions, 1808-1826: Old and New World origins - John Lynch, R. A. Humphreys c1994

      Book 

    13. Independence and revolution in Spanish America: perspectives and problems - Anthony McFarlane, Eduardo Posada Carbó, University of London. Institute of Latin American Studies 1999

      Book 

    14. Revolutions in the Atlantic world: a comparative history - Wim Klooster c2009

      Book 

  10. Origins of the First World War 7 items
    1. First World War: The July Crisis | History Today - William Mulligan

      Webpage  By reinterpreting the years before 1914 William Mulligan sees the 'July Crisis' in a fresh perspective - See more at: http://www.historytoday.com.ezproxy.westminster.ac.uk/william-mulligan/first-world-war-july-crisis#sthash.HaXMO5v5.dpuf

    2. Serbian Nationalism and the Great War | History Today - John Etty

      Webpage  John Etty questions whether Serb nationalism was an irresistible force that helped unleash the First World War.

    3. The Coming of the First World War - R. J. W. Evans, H. Pogge von Strandmann 1990, c1988

      Book 

    4. The Anglo-French Entente, 1904 | History Today - Philip Pedley

      Webpage  Philip Pedley sees fateful flaws in a famous agreement.

    5. Germany, Britain & the Coming of War in 1914 | History Today - Richard Wilkinson

      Webpage  Richard Wilkinson explains what went wrong in Anglo-German relations before the First World War.

    6. The Origins of the First World War | History Today - Robert Pearce

      Webpage  Robert Pearce distributes a survival kit for the most hazardous causation question of all.

  11. Revolutions of 1848 5 items
    1. Louis-Philippe and the 1848 Revolutions | History Today - Robert Pearce

      Webpage  Robert Pearce asks why Louis-Philippe's 'July Monarchy' was overthrown.

    2. The Young Ireland Revolt, 1848 | History Today - Mark Rathbone

      Webpage  Mark Rathbone looks at the Battle of the Widow McCormack’s Cabbage Garden and at what happened to those involved.

  12. Russia 4 items
    1. Russia: Forever a Time of Troubles | History Today - Greg Carleton

      Webpage  Westerners often consider Russia through the prism of the Soviet Union and the Second World War. But we must look further back if we wish to understand the modern nation’s fears, aims and motivations.

    2. Alexander III, Tsar of Russia, 1881-1889 | History Today - John Etty

      Webpage  John Etty assesses the historical significance of one of the lesser known Tsars.

    3. Catherine the Great: Enlightened Empress? | History Today - Simon Henderson

      Webpage  Simon Henderson places a key figure into the context of modern Russian history.

    4. The Emancipation of the Russian Serfs, 1861: A Charter of Freedom or an Act of Betrayal? | History Today - Michael Lynch

      Webpage  Michael Lynch takes a fresh look at the key reform of 19th-century Russia.

  13. The Ottomans 2 items
    1. The Ottomans in Europe | History Today - Geoffrey Woodward

      Webpage  Geoffrey Woodward assesses how great an impact the Turks had on sixteenth-century Europe.

  14. United States 19 items
    1. The American Revolution 14 items
      1. The American Revolution: a concise history - Robert J. Allison 2011 (electronic resource)

        Book 

      2. Tea Party to Independence - Peter D. G. Thomas 04/07/1991

        Book 

      3. The Miracle of Independence | History Today - Arnold Whitridge

        Webpage  Arnold Whitridge explains how a group of instinctively conservative, wealthy gentlemen led the American people to an unlikely victory in war and a miraculous nationhood.

      4. How Britain lost America | History Today - George Goodwin

        Webpage  By the end of the Seven Years War in 1763 Britain had become a global power for the first time. But the conflict’s colossal expense and the high-handed approach of British politicians led to the loss of America, writes George Goodwin.

      5. Anti-Slavery and the American Revolution | History Today - Richard K. MacMaster

        Webpage  Richard K. MacMaster examines the 'crack in the Liberty Bell'.

      6. Foreign Adventurers in the American Revolution | History Today - Aram Bakshian Jr.

        Webpage  Soldiers from Britain, France, Germany and Poland contributed to the success of American arms during the Revolutionary War, writes Aram Bakshian Jr.

      7. Lexington: The End of a Myth | History Today - John A. Bartin

        Webpage  On April 19th, 1775, the fatal clash took place, on the Common of a small Massachusetts town, between British troops and local militia. From this village battle the American War of Independence took its start. John A. Barton queries whether the clash was deliberately organized by “Patriot” leaders in order to provoke an incident, after which there could be no retreat?

      8. Washington: The Man and the Myth | History Today - Esmond Wright

        Webpage  Esmond Wright assesses the gap between the Washington of popular imagination, and established historical fact.

      9. All Men are Created Equal: the American Experiment | History Today - J.R. Pole

        Webpage  J.R. Pole describes how the idea of equality, when applied to the new multi-racial, multi-lingual, multireligious America of vast industry and teeming cities, was destined to conflict with some of the deepest existing preconceptions about the fundamental character of American society.

      10. Prelude to Independence: The American Colonies in the Eighteenth Century | History Today - Eric Robson

        Webpage  Eric Robson provides the social and economic backdrop to the outbreak of revolutionary war between the nascent USA and her British colonial masters.

      11. The War of American Independence Reconsidered | History Today - Eric Robson

        Webpage  Only a staff composed of men of military genius, and backed by a decisive and imaginative government at Westminster, could have secured a victory in the American War of Independence. Eric Robson reflects on how men of considerable talent, and of much good-will, failed in an impossible task.

      12. The American Declaration of Independence of July 4th, 1776 | History Today - Robert Hole

        Webpage  Robert Hole shows how important historical context is for an understanding of the most significant document in American history.

    2. The Civil War and After 4 items
      1. Was the American Civil War the first Modern War? | History Today - Gervase Phillips

        Webpage  Gervase Phillips points out the limitations in a common interpretation.

      2. Why was the Confederacy Defeated? | History Today - Alan Farmer

        Webpage  Alan Farmer explains why the North won the American Civil War.

      3. "The Causes" of the American Civil War | History Today - John Spicer

        Webpage  John Spicer judges that slavery was the key factor in producing the conflict.

      4. African Americans After the Civil War | History Today - John Spiller

        Webpage  John Spiller surveys race relations in the United States during Reconstruction and constructs a balance sheet.

    3. A short history of the United States - Nevins, Allan, 1890-1971.; Commager, Henry Steele, 1902-1998. c1945.

      Book 

  15. Germany 6 items
    1. A short history of Germany 1815-1945 - E. J. Passant, W. O. Henderson, C. J. Childs, D. C. Watt 1959

      Book 

    2. Russia and the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 | History Today - Mike Wells

      Webpage  Mike Wells argues that Russian decisions in July 1870 were of major significance for the history of Europe.

    3. Bismarck, Prussia and German nationalism | History Today - Edgar Feuchwanger

      Webpage  Edgar Feuchtwanger assesses Bismarck's controversial career and legacy.

    4. The Austro-Prussian War | History Today - Robert Pearce

      Webpage  Robert Pearce examines the factors that led to Prussia's victory in the German civil war of 1866. - See more at: http://www.historytoday.com.ezproxy.westminster.ac.uk/robert-pearce/austro-prussian-war#sthash.oO3cLEBk.dpuf

    5. Germany 1800-1871 - Jonathan Sperber 2004

      Book 

    6. The Peculiar Course of German History | History Today - Edgar Feuchtwanger

      Webpage  Edgar Feuchtwanger warns against exaggerating the extent or significance of liberalism’s failure in German history.

  16. Italy 4 items
    1. Garibaldi - Luck or Judgement | History Today - Graham Darby

      Webpage  Graham Darby reassesses the contribution of one of the key players in the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy. - See more at: http://www.historytoday.com.ezproxy.westminster.ac.uk/graham-darby/garibaldi-luck-or-judgement#sthash.vBIwiTUF.dpuf

    2. Piedmont in the 1850s | History Today - Mark Rathbone

      Webpage  Mark Rathbone asks why the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia emerged in the 1850s as the likely unifier of Italy.

    3. Giuseppe Mazzini | History Today - Robert Pearce

      Webpage  Robert Pearce highlights Giuseppe Mazzini’s role in the Risorgimento.

    4. How was Italy Unified? | History Today - Alan Farmer

      Webpage  Alan Farmer examines the process which led to the unification of Italy.

  17. Reference 2 items
    1. The Times history of the world - R. J. Overy, Geoffrey Barraclough 1999

      Book Further

    2. The Wiley-Blackwell dictionary of modern European history since 1789 - Nicholas Atkin, Michael D. Biddiss, Frank Tallett, Wiley InterScience (Online service) 2011 (electronic resource)

      Book  The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789 is an authoritative and accessible reference guide to the major people, events, and issues that have shaped the development of Europe from the French Revolution to the present day.

  18. Audio-Visual Material 37 items
    1. France 4 items
      1. Napoleon Wednesday 10 Jun 2015 at 21:30

        Audio-visual document  Description: 1/3. Documentary. From lowly Corsican Army officer to first consul of France, this episode charts the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte to leader of the French nation in the late 1790s. Also in HD. [AD,S]

      2. Napoleon Wednesday 17 Jun 2015 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: 2/3. Documentary. This edition charts the transformation of a political leader of the French to Emperor and global statesman. Presented by British historian Andrew Roberts. Also in HD. [AD,S]

      3. Napoleon Wednesday 24 Jun 2015 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: 3/3. Andrew Roberts charts the fall of Napoleon, a defining moment in global history. Also in HD. [AD,S]

      4. Terror! Robespierre and the French Revolution Saturday, 24 Oct 2009

        Audio-visual document  The watchwords of the French Revolution were liberty, equality and fraternity. Maximilien Robespierre believed in them passionately. He was an idealist and a lover of humanity. However, during the 365 days that Robespierre sat on the Committee of Public Safety, the French Republic descended into a bloodbath. ‘The Terror’ only came to end when Robespierre was devoured by the repressive machinery he had created. This drama-documentary tells the story of the Terror and looks at how Robespierre’s revolutionary idealism quickly became an excuse for tyranny, and why a lover of liberty was so keen to use the guillotine. Simon Schama and Slavoj Zizek are among the contributors.

    2. Miscellaneous 1 item
      1. Andrew Marr's History of the World Sunday 28 Oct 2012 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: 6/8. Revolution: Andrew explores a time when people worldwide rose up in the name of freedom and equality. Contains some upsetting scenes. Also in HD. [AD,S]

    3. United States 12 items
      1. The American Civil War Tuesday 24 Jul 2012 at 21:15

        Audio-visual document  Description: Adam Smith explores the Civil War. 1/4. The War of the South. Adam travels to Richmond, Virginia, to uncover the contradictions at the South's heart.

      2. The American Civil War Wednesday 25 Jul 2012 at 21:45

        Audio-visual document  Description: Adam Smith explores the war. 2/4. The War of the North: Smith travels from Lincoln's home town to Washington and asks why the North fought and what it won.

      3. The American Civil War Thursday 26 Jul 2012 at 21:30

        Audio-visual document  Description: Adam Smith explores the Civil War. 3/4. Dividing Lines. Adam visits America to trace how the dividing lines of the Civil War are still visible beneath US politics 150 years on.

      4. The American Civil War Friday 27 Jul 2012 at 22:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Investigating the war. 4/4. Blockade Runners and Black Minstrels: What Britain did in the American Civil War. Louise Welsh investigates blockade running and blackface minstrelsy.

      5. America, Empire of Liberty Omnibus Friday 19 Sep 2008 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Omnibus edition of David Reynolds's series charting the history of America. 1/6: Land and Peoples. The story of America's first inhabitants and the impact of European exploration.

      6. America, Empire of Liberty Omnibus Friday 26 Sep 2008 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Omnibus edition of David Reynolds's history of America. 2/6: Empire and Liberties. Colonists sow the seeds of modern democracy, but slavery is a vital part of the colonial economy.

      7. America, Empire of Liberty Omnibus Friday 3 Oct 2008 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Omnibus edition of David Reynolds's history of America. 3/6: Independence and Republicanism. America wins independence and George Washington is inaugurated as its first President.

      8. America, Empire of Liberty Omnibus Friday 10 Oct 2008 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Omnibus edition of David Reynolds' history of America. 4/6. Liberty and Security: The impact of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, and the settling of the interior.

      9. America, Empire of Liberty Omnibus Friday 17 Oct 2008 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Omnibus edition of David Reynolds's history of America. 5/6: East and West. Thousands migrate west, while Indian tribes who do not assimilate are forced west of the Mississippi.

      10. America, Empire of Liberty Omnibus Friday 24 Oct 2008 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Omnibus edition of David Reynolds's history of America. 6/6: Slave or Free. As more states are admitted to the Union, the slavery debate reaches a critical point.

      11. America, Empire of Liberty Omnibus Friday 23 Jan 2009 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Omnibus edition of David Reynolds's history of America. 7/12: North and South. The years of Civil War: a fight for Southern independence and the end of slavery.

      12. America, Empire of Liberty Omnibus Friday 30 Jan 2009 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Omnibus edition of David Reynolds' history of America. 8/12. White and Black: The post-Civil War years, during which the North attempts to impose racial equality on the South.

    4. United Kingdom 8 items
      1. Why the Industrial Revolution... Monday 14 Jan 2013 at 21:30

        Audio-visual document  Description: ...Happened Here. Professor Jeremy Black explains the social, economic and political conditions in the 19th century that led to Britain becoming the richest, most powerful nation on Earth. [AD,S]

      2. Andrew Marr's History of the World Sunday 4 Nov 2012 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  7/8. Age of Industry: Andrew Marr tells how Britain's Industrial Revolution created the modern world. Contains some upsetting scenes. Also in HD. [AD,S

      3. In Our Time Thursday 23 Dec 2010 at 09:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: 1/2. Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the Industrial Revolution, a period of rapid technological development which brought widespread social and intellectual change to Britain.

      4. In Our Time Thursday 30 Dec 2010 at 09:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss the consequences of the Industrial Revolution, when technological development brought widespread social and intellectual change to Britain.

      5. Empire Tuesday 19 Apr 2011 at 03:34

        Audio-visual document  Description: Why Britain?: Oxford Professor Niall Ferguson tells the full and spectacular story of the rise and fall of the British Empire.

      6. Empire Tuesday 26 Apr 2011 at 02:25

        Audio-visual document  Description: White Plague: Over 20 million people who left Britain and set up home in colonial outposts, built the British Empire. Niall Ferguson explores the mass migration.

      7. Empire Tuesday 10 May 2011 at 04:15

        Audio-visual document  Description: Heven's Breed Niall Ferguson travels through India to discover how, at the height of the Empire, the British were able to govern hundreds of millions of Indians with less than a thousand civil servants.

      8. Empire Tuesday 17 May 2011 at 03:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Niall Ferguson returns to some of Britain's bloodiest imperial conflicts - in the Boer war and the Sudan - to tell the story of how European powers competed in the 'Scramble for Africa'.

    5. Germany 3 items
      1. The Invention of Germany Monday 17 Oct 2011 at 20:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Misha Glenny presents a history of Germany before the world wars. 1/3: The events of the Thirty Years War when foreign mercenaries rampaged through the land now called Germany.

      2. The Invention of Germany Sunday 22 Apr 2012 at 13:30

        Audio-visual document  Description: Misha Glenny presents a history of Germany before the world wars. 2/3. The rise of Prussia, from Frederick the Great in 1740 to humiliation by Napoleon in 1806

      3. The Invention of Germany Monday 31 Oct 2011 at 20:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Misha Glenny presents a history of Germany before the world wars. 3/3: The emergence of a unified Germany in 1871, and its implications for what came next - namely two world wars.

    6. Italy 2 items
      1. Garibaldi's Grand Scheme Sunday 29 Jun 2008 at 13:30

        Audio-visual document  Description: Misha Glenny traces the career of Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi. 1/2: Born in 1807, Garibaldi liberated the south of Italy before giving up all of his powers to the north.

      2. Garibaldi's Grand Scheme Monday 19 Nov 2007 at 20:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: Misha Glenny traces the career of Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi. 2/2: He explores the background to Garibaldi's heroic efforts that liberated all of southern Italy.

    7. The Ottomans 3 items
      1. The Ottomans: Europe's Muslim Emperors Monday 7 Oct 2013 at 23:20

        Audio-visual document  Description: 1/3. Rageh Omaar begins his examination of the Ottoman empire by looking at its unlikely roots as a group of nomadic horsemen in a rural backwater of modern day Turkey. Also in HD. [AD,S]

      2. The Ottomans: Europe's Muslim Emperors Sunday 13 Oct 2013 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: 2/3. Rageh Omaar explores the contrasts between two very different Ottoman sultans.

      3. The Ottomans: Europe's Muslim Emperors Monday 21 Oct 2013 at 23:20

        Audio-visual document  Description: 3/3. Rageh Omaar ends his series with a look at how the collapse of the Ottoman Empire created a legacy of tension and conflict that continues to this day.

    8. Russia 3 items
      1. Empire of the Tsars: Romanov Russia... Sunday 10 Jan 2016 at 20:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: ...with Lucy Worsley. 1/3. Reinventing Russia: A look at the early Romanovs, from 16-year-old Mikhail in 1613 to Peter the Great.

      2. New: Empire of the Tsars: Romanov... Wednesday 13 Jan 2016 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: ...Russia with Lucy Worsley. 2/3. Age of Extremes: Lucy examines the reign of Catherine the Great and the conflict with Napoleonic France

      3. Empire of the Tsars: Romanov Russia... Sunday 24 Jan 2016 at 20:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: ...with Lucy Worsley. 3/3. The Road to Revolution: Lucy investigates how the family's grip on Russia unravelled in the years 1825-1918.

    9. China 1 item
      1. The Story of China Thursday 18 Feb 2016 at 21:00

        Audio-visual document  Description: 5/6. The Last Empire: The story of China's last empire, the Qing, which lasted from 1644 to 1912.